Volume 6 (2021-22)

Each volume of Journal of Cultural Marketing Strategy consists of two biannual issues, published in print and online. 

The articles published in Volume 6 are listed below.

Volume 6 Number 2

  • Editorial
    Jake Beniflah, Founding Editor, Journal of Cultural Marketing Strategy
  • Awareness as wellness: Examining disparities in mental health care
    Elyria Kemp, Professor of Marketing, College of Business Administration, University of New Orleans, et al.

    Mental health encompasses an individual’s emotional, psychological and social well-being. In the United States, addressing mental health is an emergent concern among young adults. This paper investigates how stigma and ethnicity influence the likelihood of young adults seeking professional help for a mental health condition. To garner understanding regarding young adults’ attitudes about mental health and help-seeking behaviour, individuals from the Gen Z and millennial generational cohorts were interviewed regarding the management of their mental health and their comfort level with seeking help for a mental health condition. Insight from the interviews helped to inform the development of a model that examined factors influencing the consumption of mental health services. The model was tested using individuals from the Gen Z and millennial cohorts (n = 476). Findings indicate that stigma mediates the relationship between individuals experiencing a mental health condition such as anxiety and intentions to seek mental health services. Heightened feelings of anxiety were also related to efforts to self-treat an illness by consuming products such as alcohol and recreational drugs. Ethnicity was a key factor in terms of the intention to seek help for a mental health condition, with white people more likely than black people to seek help for a mental health condition such as anxiety. Finally, mental health literacy was positively related to intentions to seek mental health services. Recommendations are offered for how marketing and communication strategies can be designed to reach targeted groups, including groups of colour, to help address the mental health crisis.
    Keywords: mental health, stigma, ethnicity, black/African American, mental health literacy

  • Purpose-driven corporate communication: A content analysis of US Fortune 100 companies
    Alexis Bajalia Fitzsimmons, PhD Candidate, University of Florida, et al.

    Purpose is a company’s reason for being — the why behind its existence and the impact it makes on local and global society. This paper explores whether and how Fortune companies incorporate purpose messaging in their corporate communication. The study draws on content produced by these companies over a six-year period and distributed via their corporate communication channels to such stakeholders as customers, employees, investors and media. Content analysis indicates that the volume of purpose communication produced by Fortune companies has increased over the years, most notably when it comes to Glassdoor overviews. The findings indicate that companies in the healthcare and pharmaceutical, technology and retail/wholesale industries are the obvious leaders in purpose communication. By highlighting the organisational benefits of purpose communication, this study provides a wakeup call for those companies that are lagging when it comes to creating and acting on corporate purpose.
    Keywords: purpose-driven communications, stakeholder communications, corporate communications, global communications

  • A grounded theory approach to determine the factors affecting tourism decisions
    Rekha Attri, Assistant Professor and Sahil Jasrotia, Assistant Professor, Jaipuria Institute of Management

    Today’s tourists want a personalised service that provides not just detailed information about destinations, but also packages tailored to their individual needs. This paper proposes a conceptual customer relationship management model for the tourism sector. The study was carried out by conducting in-depth interviews with the owners and senior managers of tour operating companies in the cities of Bhopal and Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India. Eighteen tour operators and managers were interviewed, each of whom had at least five years of experience working in the sector. The content was analysed using the grounded theory approach. To help deliver value to customers and hence develop stronger customer bonds, the model developed through this research includes factors such as natural characteristics, amenities, social environment, attractions, accessibility, security, promotions and customer feedback. By considering these factors, tour operators can design their customer acquisition, servicing and loyalty plans to enhance customer relationship management in tourism.
    Keywords: customer relationship management, tourism, grounded theory, tourism

  • Exploring Hispanic health attitudes and behaviours for more informed cross-cultural marketing
    Amy Gómez, SVP of Diversity Strategy, Klick Health, et al.

    Many global pharmaceutical brands have made strong commitments to improve cross-cultural inclusion in their marketing communications by considering the needs of diverse communities. To stay true to those commitments and to be successful in them requires strong data and insights about those communities. This study evaluates the health attitudes and behaviours of Hispanics compared with non-Hispanics in order to develop foundational knowledge to begin improving cross-cultural pharmaceutical marketing. The study draws on information captured from a series of online discussion boards, a quantitative survey and qualitative focus groups to understand potential differences in definitions of health, people and places of healthcare consumption and opportunities for marketing innovation. The investigation shows that many nuances of Hispanic healthcare needs and preferences are not currently being addressed by pharmaceutical marketers. It also identifies specific gaps in the areas of mental health and digital technology. The findings from this research can be used by pharmaceutical marketers to develop more effective cross-cultural communications targeted at Hispanics.
    Keywords: cross-cultural, multicultural, Hispanic, Latino, health, health technology, healthcare marketing

  • The Hispanic marketing paradigm and the needed shift: A Kuhnian perspective
    Jake Beniflah, Executive Director and Pamela Razo, Research Analyst, The Center for Multicultural Science

    Over the last 40 years, significant shifts in the US demography, media and technology have transformed the face of marketing. At the same time, however, marketing to US Hispanics has undergone little change. This paper uses the philosophy of science to analyse the past, present and future of marketing to Hispanics at a time when the country is on a path to becoming a multicultural majority. The paper argues that a paradigm shift in marketing to US Hispanics is inevitable, and a conversion rooted in epistemology can only benefit brands, advertising agencies and media companies. The paper provides an overview on: (1) Thomas Kuhn’s original work, detailing the structure of paradigm formation and change; (2) the creation of the Hispanic marketing paradigm; and (3) the proposed shift in marketing to drive corporate growth with US Hispanics in the 21st century.
    Keywords: epistemology, history of science, Kuhn, paradigms, paradigm shifts, Hispanic marketing, Hispanic marketing paradigm

  • Self-referencing and optimal distinctiveness theory: The theoretical underpinnings to US multicultural marketing
    Jake Beniflah, Executive Director and Pamela Razo, Research Analyst, The Center for Multicultural Science and Julie Veloz, Vice President of Diversity Intelligence and Strategy for the Interpublic Group of Companies

    This paper revisits in-culture marketing, a model that has served as the strategic backbone to Hispanic marketing in the USA for more than three decades. Although popular and useful, in-culture marketing lacks a theoretical foundation and empirical validation. To help brands do a better job of engaging with an increasingly multicultural population, this paper introduces two theories rooted in social psychology: self-referencing, which has been shown to drive advertising effectiveness when information is linked to the self, and (2) optimal distinctiveness theory, which helps explain social identity and how people come to define themselves in terms of their social group memberships. At a time when the US population is becoming increasingly multicultural, this paper advances a conceptual four-quadrant model designed to improve marketing effectiveness for leading corporations. The paper argues that the US advertising industry bears the responsibility to develop and promote new strategic approaches that help leading brands grow — even if it means challenging today’s business models and disrupting the status quo.
    Keywords: self-referencing, optimal distinctiveness theory, marketing, cultural marketing, US multicultural marketing

  • Reducing employee turnover intentions through ethical leadership and positive organisational behaviour
    Mitali Dohroo, Research Scholar and Taranjeet Duggal, Professor, Amity Business School and Amirul Hasan Ansari, Professor of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University

    Using data obtained from the literature, this study conducts statistical analysis to improve understanding regarding the relationship between firms and their employees. The results indicate that employee turnover is lower among companies that combine strong, effective leadership with distinct organisational culture and behaviour.
    Keywords: positive organisational behaviour, employee turnover reduction, leadership, HR practices

  • Fan engagement on select social media platforms: A study of the Indian Premier League
    Avtar Singh, Assistant Professor and Rahul Sharma, Associate Professor, Mittal School of Business, Lovely Professional University

    In recent years, the Indian Premier League (IPL) — one of the biggest sporting competitions in India — has enjoyed significant growth in fan engagement across multiple social media platforms. As audience engagement is a vital metric for measuring the success of any venture or event, this paper investigates in more detail how this has manifest across select social media channels, namely Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and YouTube. With a focus on the period from 2018 to 2020, the study identifies a significant increase in the number of cricket fans following IPL teams on social media and engaging with them via likes, shares and comments. Such an increase in engagement not only creates more opportunities for IPL franchises but also for other stakeholders, such as team supporters and sponsors.
    Keywords: fan engagement, Indian Premier League, social media, cricket, Facebook

Volume 6 Number 1

  • Editorial
    Jake Beniflah, Founding Editor, Journal of Cultural Marketing Strategy
  • Showdown in the camera sector: Strategies for an industry in decline
    Gagandeep Singh, Assistant Professor and Jasdeep Singh Walia, Assistant Professor, Mittal School of Business

    The emergence of sophisticated mobile camera technology has created major disruptions for the camera industry. Indeed, incremental improvements in smartphone camera technology over the last decade have prompted a steep decline in the sale of Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR) cameras. This study reviews the failure of the DSLR camera industry to counter the threats posed by smartphone cameras by embracing an agile approach to business. The paper proposes a conceptual model that appraises the complex environment of the DSLR camera industry and identifies the factors disrupting existing markets. The model will help businesses in this industry to review the threats posed by the challenger industry and enable them to recognise future market opportunities.
    Keywords: business agility, VUCA, camera technology, DSLR, smartphone cameras

  • Balinese culture: The impact of Tri Kaya Parisudha on personal happiness and life success
    Ni Nyoman Kerti Yasa, Lecturer, Udayana University, et al.

    This study explores how the practice of Tri Kaya Parisudha — a philosophy that encourages positive thoughts, words and deeds — influences personal happiness and ‘life success’ among Balinese Hindus. Based on SEM-PLS path analysis, the results indicate not only that Tri Kaya Parisudha increases personal happiness and life success, but that personal happiness also contributes to life success. This suggests that positive thoughts, words and deeds can indeed have a tangible impact on people’s wellbeing.
    Keywords: Tri Kaya Parisudha, personal happiness, life success, Hindu community, Bali

  • Let’s settle this on the (online) gridiron: Examining perceptions of rival brands and platforms in gaming and sport
    Cody T. Havard, Director, Bureau of Sport and Leisure Commerce and Rhema D. Fuller, Associate Professor of Sport Commerce, Kemmons Wilson School, University of Memphis and Yash Padhye, PhD Candidate, University of Northern Colorado

    This study investigates the differences in perceptions of rival brands and out-group members between fans of sport teams and electronic gaming/e-sports. Using the theoretical underpinnings of social identity theory, rivalry, in-group bias and the common in-group model, the authors compare the influence of setting and belonging to multiple in-groups on fandom and rival perceptions in sport and gaming. The study finds that compared with gaming fans and participants, fans of sport teams tend to report stronger negative perceptions of their rival teams and supporters. The study also finds that being a fan of both a sport team and gaming tends to influence more positive perceptions of rival brands and out-group members than being a fan of sport or gaming only. Finally, gamers that use an online platform report more negative perceptions of console platforms than vice versa, and ethnicity presents interesting influence on gaming participants. Implications for marketing professionals along with avenues for future investigation are also discussed.
    Keywords: rivalry, fan and consumer behaviour, out-group derogation, gaming, sport

  • The changing multicultural marketing landscape
    David R. Morse, Adjunct Professor of Marketing Research, Grand Canyon University

    Within the USA, 2020 was a turning point in terms of attitudes toward race, racism and social justice, particularly among whites. After a horrified nation, indeed world, watched the brutal murder of George Floyd at the hands of police officers, and the growing support extended to the Black Lives Matter movement, Americans began to look toward their brands to take on systemic racism and promote the wellbeing of people of colour, as well as the LGBTQ and gender non-binary communities. As companies’ diversity, equity and inclusion initiatives become increasingly visible and important to customers, as well as employees, the business of multicultural marketing is likely to change. This paper examines the evolution of the multicultural marketing industry over the past 25 years, where it is in 2021, and the direction it is likely to go, given an increasing focus on racial equality amid stark attitudinal divisions.
    Keywords: multicultural, marketing, DEI, diversity, equity, inclusion

  • Country-of-origin effects on the brand image of agricultural products in China
    Fan Mo, Associate Professor, School of International Exchange, Guangdong AIB Polytechnic and WeiMing Chee, Associate Professor, City University of Malaysia

    Drawing on the country-of-origin effect, this paper discusses the key levers for developing the regional brand image of agricultural products in order to increase the competitiveness of such products. Building on this, it proposes a model to develop a credible origin and brand image for regional agricultural products. The paper concludes that when constructing regional brand image, one must identify the product’s various advantages, integrate the unique culture and history of the region, and foster collaboration between government, businesses and farmers. In this way, it is possible to drive rapid economic development at a regional level.
    Keywords: country-of-origin effect, agricultural product, regional brand, regional brand image

  • Speculative methods: Conceptualising a theoretical framework for reimagining racism awareness in education
    Trudi L. Perkins, Founder and Chief Executive Officer, Momentum Enterprises

    In the present period of great change, there is a clear need to revisit existing work on anti-racist education. To address this need, this paper proposes a conceptual process for reframing education from a racism awareness stance, giving K-12 educators a more central role in the reshaping of education. By learning different ways of questioning, educators at all levels will be better able to identify new paths to greater individual and collective racial growth.
    Keywords: antiracism, speculative methods, inventive approaches, qualitative research, critical antiracist theory, reframing pedagogy, reimagining education

  • Culturally relevant marketing: Conceptualising a critical pedagogical approach to multicultural marketing strategy
    Valerie L. Williams-Sanchez, Multicultural Marketing Consultant, Valorena Online

    In this era of unprecedented political shifts, the global health pandemic, and social justice awakenings, marketing strategists who look to develop effective marketing strategies must be able to navigate an evolving socio-political landscape and the needs of an increasingly diverse population and marketplace. To meet these needs, this paper proposes a new framework: the culturally relevant marketing strategy. For theorists, pragmatists and practitioners operating in this space, culturally relevant marketing offers important features and benefits. Taking cues from education pedagogy, this hybrid approach integrates traditional marketing strategy with multi-dimensional consumer research, discourse, critical interpretation, and analysis, to facilitate meaningful outcomes. It does this by providing the tools needed to overcome cultural blind spots and social justice tone-deafness in strategic development. This paper considers the market factors at play to present a grounding overview, including what distinguishes it from other branded theories, in order to conceptualise a go-to multicultural marketing strategy approach for right now.
    Keywords: culturally relevant marketing strategy, integrated conscious content, dimensional multicultural strategic planning

  • Where there’s a will, there’s a way: Closing the US multicultural wealth gap with purpose-driven organisations
    Jake Beniflah, Executive Director, The Center for Multicultural Science

    This multidisciplinary paper examines the economic impact of closing the US multicultural wealth gap and proposes a potential solution to solve this problem. It contends that the persistent wealth gap in the country is not only a burden on African American and Hispanic families, but on the US economy more widely. The paper starts by reporting the demographic changes of the last decade and consumer expenditures by ethnicity and race. It then outlines the multicultural wealth gap and calculates the economic impact of Hispanics and African Americans achieving parity on key financial measures. Specifically, the findings suggest that parity in wealth across ethnicity and race could grow the US economy by more than US$8tn. The paper goes on to offer a conceptual, prescriptive model to help reduce the multicultural wealth gap, and proposes that purpose-driven organisations that use ‘purpose’ not just as a starting point but as a raison d’être are better positioned to grow their business in an increasingly diverse society. The paper closes with a discussion of the implications for organisations seeking to balance purpose with performance in the 21st century.
    Keywords: wealth gap, multicultural, Hispanics, African Americans, purpose-driven organisations