Volume 8 (2024)

Each volume of Journal of Cultural Marketing Strategy consists of two 100-page issues, published both in print and online. Articles scheduled for Volume 8 are available to view on the 'Forthcoming content' page.

Volume 8 Number 1

  • Editorial
    Jake Beniflah, Executive Director, The Center for Multicultural Science, USA
  • The impact of celebrity endorsers and influencer marketers on consumer behaviour
    Pranjal Jain, Research Scholar, Mittal School of Business, Lovely Professional University and Anju Jain, Professor, University of Delhi

    This study investigates the differential impact of influencer marketers and celebrity endorsers on consumer purchase intention. It examines whether the effect of endorsers endorsing products with varying price points exhibits variability or consistency. The study also explores whether the impact of celebrity endorsers and influencer marketers differs depending on endorsement campaign duration and proposes an optimal campaign duration. Employing a mixed-methods approach including a randomised controlled trial, a longitudinal study, and multi-level modelling with regression analysis, the study finds that celebrity endorsements have a stronger impact and that the same endorser can yield varying impacts across products. Further, campaign duration significantly influences effectiveness, with implications for cost-effectiveness. These findings offer practical insights for marketers making decisions on endorsement strategies and campaign duration.
    Keywords: influencer marketing; celebrity endorsements; consumer psychology; longitudinal study; randomised control trial

  • Validation as motivation: A reference to help today’s students become tomorrow’s professionals
    Brandon D. Harris, Director, Assessment & Research, Loyola Marymount University

    This paper provides an actionable framework for motivating underperforming students to become overachieving professionals. The validation-motivation model is reinforced by cases that include the existence of validation, motivation, cultural consciousness and sense of belonging. Current literature highlighting relative approaches to supporting African American and other minoritised students is utilised to strengthen the credibility of validation as motivation. The literature provides nuance to validation theory while presenting it as a practical tool used to spark motivation toward success. Implications of the material are provided, as well as recommendations for professional and educational leaders’ goals in supporting the future success of students. From theory, to practice, to outcomes, this document provides leaders with a brief yet functional outline for encouraging the student-to-professional transition.
    Keywords: diversity; equity; inclusion; validation; motivation; student success; professional success

  • Driving return on media investment with US Hispanics in the 21st century: The nativity based view
    Jake Beniflah, Executive Director, Center for Multicultural Science and Adaluz J. Veloz, Executive Vice President of Employee Experience, Talent Acquisition and DEI, Ketchum

    Ever since the nativity-based view (NBV) was first introduced in 2015, business practitioners have been surprised to learn that there is a better way to target US Hispanics than by simply using Spanish-language media. This was a watershed moment for the US advertising and marketing industry — a paradigm shift that leading brands, advertising agencies and research companies did not see coming. Challenging the Hispanic marketing paradigm, the NBV proposes that nativity is more effective in driving media return on media investment than marketing to Hispanics in-language. To address recent concerns that the NBV, as a construct, lacks internal validity, this paper compares past NBV research spanning almost a decade versus 2023 data. This study continues to show that there are significant differences between US-born and foreign-born Hispanics on a number of dimensions, including demographics, language usage, media consumption and return on media investment. This new media model has strong implications for marketing to US Hispanics in the 21st century, providing brands and advertising agencies with a simple, and more effective model that has lived in the shadows of language-based marketing since the early 1990s. This paper suggests companies that follow the customer rather than the industry narrative are better positioned to win in an overwhelming US-born Hispanic marketplace.
    Keywords: marketing; multicultural marketing; nativity-based view; nativity; media ROI; US Hispanics

  • Buzz marketing: Examining the effect of online reviews on purchase consideration
    Praveen Kumar Pandey, PhD Scholar, Manav Rachna International Institute of Research & Studies and Amandeep Dhaliwal, Associate Professor, Manav Rachna International Institute of Research & Studies

    Buzz marketing is a novel and interesting approach in the service industry that generates interest and excitement about a product or service through word-of-mouth promotion and viral marketing, rather than relying solely on traditional advertising methods. This study investigates the impact of online reviews on the sales of various products and services. To do this, a sample of 410 participants was drawn from a diverse group of customers living in Delhi and the National Capital Region of India. Both primary and secondary data collection methods were used to gather data, and a closed-ended questionnaire was administered to collect information. The study found that online review quality and reviewer characteristics significantly impact consumer attitudes and purchase intentions, with individual consumer characteristics acting as a negative moderator. These results have important implications for businesses looking to improve sales through online reviews. The originality and value of this study lies in its examination of the relationship between online reviews, review quality and reviewer characteristics on consumer attitudes and purchase intentions. By understanding these relationships, businesses can improve their online reputation and increase sales by focusing on high-quality reviews and maintaining the credibility and reputation of their reviewers.
    Keywords: buzz marketing; online review; quality; reviewers’ characteristics; consumer attitude; attitude formation; purchase intention

  • Gentle whispers of women: An epistemological study of gender studies in marketing across 25 years
    Icten Duygu Ozbek, Head of the Advertising Department, Aydın Adnan Menderes University and Jake Beniflah, Executive Director, Center for Multicultural Science

    Gender studies is a complex, interdisciplinary field that delves into the impact of societal and cultural norms on gender-related aspects of society. In terms of marketing communications, gender studies are widely discussed across every sub-branch of marketing, including consumer behaviour, advertising, product development and brand communication. Nonetheless, the question of whether this issue has been given sufficient scientific analysis in both academia and in business remains a matter of debate. This epistemological study conducts a keyword analysis of the articles published in the top ten marketing journals over the last 25 years. In general, the articles in the sample group are found to focus on the relationship between gender and marketing mix, brand communication, corporate behaviour, consumer behaviour and stereotypes. While many countries are insensitive to gender inequality, it is thought that international publications should give more importance to studies focusing on women in particular, and it is seen that few studies focusing on gender are included in the research conducted. By analysing research that focuses on gender, this study aims to support marketing professionals for better marketing practices.
    Keywords: gender; marketing; gender roles in advertising; masculine and feminine stereotypes; gendered brands

  • The role of generative pretrained transformers (GPTs) in revolutionising digital marketing: A conceptual model
    Animesh Kumar Sharma, Research Scholar, Mittal School of Business and Rahul Sharma, Professor, Mittal School of Business

    Generative pre-trained transformer (GPT) technology has become a revolutionary deep-learning tool for enabling businesses to generate coherent and contextually relevant text. With its versatile applications in content creation, customer interactions and social media marketing, GPT has redefined the way businesses engage with their audiences. This research paper focuses on the applications of GPT in social media marketing, search ads and display advertisements, enhancing customer support and interactions. By harnessing the conversational capabilities of ChatGPT, businesses are able to deliver personalised responses, address customer queries, and provide tailored recommendations, thereby elevating the overall customer experience and driving customer satisfaction. Furthermore, the ability of GPT to generate creative and engaging content has proven invaluable in the realm of social media marketing. Marketers can leverage GPT to automate the creation of social media posts, craft captivating captions, and generate relevant hashtags that resonate with their target audience. Through a comprehensive review of existing literature, empirical studies and case examples, this paper demonstrates the transformative potential of GPT in digital marketing. It highlights the advantages and opportunities arising from integrating GPT-based technologies, emphasising the significance of personalised customer interactions and compelling social media content for achieving marketing objectives. The findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the role and implications of GPT in digital marketing, offering valuable insights for practitioners and researchers in the field.
    Keywords: digital marketing; GPT; ChatGPT; BARD; social media marketing; generative pre-trained transformer

  • It’s not all black and white: A text analysis of racially diverse versus legacy superheroes in Marvel and DC Comics
    Neil Granitz, Professor of Marketing, California State University, Fullerton and Steven Chen, Professor of Marketing, California State University, Fullerton

    Comic-book publishers have responded to growing racial diversity by strategically creating multicultural superheroes to diversify their publishing lines. While extant research has examined representation and broader-level themes surrounding diverse heroes, limited research has focused on the story text in diverse titles. This is the first study to explore and analyse the story text to uncover themes in diverse versus legacy superhero comics. Through a Leximancer text analysis of superhero comic books from Marvel and DC Comics, this study (1) identifies the prominent themes exuded in legacy titles versus diversity titles, (2) examines the cultural authenticity of the themes, and (3) compares the themes with those in past research. Identifying the different themes and their authenticity is critical for creators and marketers appealing to diverse segments, who now represent 19 per cent of consumer spending in the USA. Findings indicate varying themes across diverse and legacy superhero comics. Diverse comics focus on time struggles between superhero-ing and school, family and home. Legacy comics evoke themes of mastering time and space and then returning home. In contrasting Marvel and DC diverse superhero comics, Marvel themes focus more on the personal journey of the hero from doubt to confidence, while DC themes focus on the resilience of the heroes in their downtrodden neighbourhoods. In comparing these themes with themes identified in past content analyses, there is similarity and authenticity. The paper concludes with strategic implications pertinent to cultural marketing and media representation and inclusion. Marketers trying to reach diverse segments must continue to present diverse youth with authentic stories developed by credible creators. They may also move beyond common themes to those embodying greater empowerment.
    Keywords: comics; superhero; multicultural; diversity; inclusion; representation